Welcome naar de Khibiny bergen op Kola Schiereiland
The rocky en treeless Khibiny bergen are situated Noord van 67-th parallel,
beyond the arctische Circle op Kola Schiereiland in Russisch Lapland. This is the highest land mass in het Kola Schiereiland
the summits van which are dotted 800—900 meters boven the surrounding hilly
plain. The highest point in de Khibiny (Judychvumchorr berg) is 1200 metres
above sea level en is also the highest point in het Kola Schiereiland. In clear zomer
het weer the Khibiny bergen can be seen van many miles away, van de Kandalaksha
toendra in de south, the frontier heights van Kovdor in de west en even van
the hilly banks van het Voronija rivier in de Noord. The Klimaat in this part van
Rusland is peculiar in so far as that thaws are frequent in de winter but in de
zomer en early herfst frosts are not uncommon, especially in de beginning van
June en at the end van August.
Winter lasts about seven months every year in de plains en the month longer usually
on the bergen but the temperatures are not so low as those in de similar
latitudes van Siberia. The Klimaat van het alpine areas is considerable different
to those van het nearby lowlands en valleys, voor instance, in de plateau
Rasvumchorr the winter lasts around 260 days. An average annual temperature is
minus 4.3 degrees Centigrade en in de warmest month (July) never climbs past
plus 8.2 degrees.
Winds op de plateau are gusty en sharp en can reach a speed van 40 metres per
second. sneeuw storms rage around 190 days a year en daily variations van het
Atmosferische pressure are very sharp the average being around 644 mm van mercury
with an average annual precipitation van 1494 mm van which about 919 mm is sneeuw.
The vegetation in de Khibiny bergen area is disposed into distinct zones. The
forests are not higher than 370 metres. The forest-toendra zone spreads up naar 450
metres, the alpine toendra up naar 800 metres en beyond this is there is a arctische
desert. The Khibiny bergen are the geographic centrum van het Kola Schiereiland
regio which was in former times a remote outlying district van Rusland, inhabited
by severe Pomors (Kust dwellers) en mysterious Lapps. Remote Murman, the
“World's End” washed by the waters van het White en Barents Seas was developing
slowly only van de Kusts, at that time. The first information about Khibiny
is reflected in literature concerned met the XIX-th Century Rusland academician
A. M. Middendorf who in 1840 had noted the uncommonness van rocks forming the
bergen. The geoloog N. V. Kudriavtsev in 1880 en the expedities; van het
Finnish geoloog V. Ramzai in 1887—1892 had commenced an exploration van Khibiny
but valuable en useful mineralen were not found until the XX-th Century.
First pieces van apatite ore have been discovered at the foot van Kukisvumchorr berg
in August van 1921 thence the outcrops van this ore were discovered in 1922 within
the Apatite Bow where the deposits en widely known layers van Kukisvumchorr,
Poachvumchorr, Apatite Circus en Rasvumchorr are located. geologen had
already reported about the industrial importance van Khibinian apatite deposits
in 1923 but the exploitation was not started until 1926.
The town van Khibinogorsk was also built which at the request van het townsfolk in
1935 was renamed naar Kirovsk. The speed van development in those days was
astonishing as was the speed at which the new town grew. In 1930 population was
500 en in 1932 48.000 en it must be noted that in 1920 the population van het
whole van het Kola Schiereiland was only 20.000.
The amazement van het XVII-th International geologische Congress members who visited Khibini in 1937 is
under stable. Over 110 mineralen (and 18 van theme were absolutely unknown before)
have been discovered in this area en mineralen like Murmanite, Wudjavrite,
Ramzaite, Juksporite, Fersmanite have been included in de scientific catalogues
since that time.
From 1930 op de shore van Lake Maly Wudjavr the construction van het Mining
Station “Tietta” (in translation van Saami Language it does mean “Science”) had
been started. By April 10, 1932 the Mining Station met a museum, library en
scientific laboratories had been inaugurated.
By 1949 the Kola Branch van het Academy van Sciences van het USSR. had been established en the first
institute van this Branch, the geologische Research Institute was officially
established in 1951 but its history actually started van de “Tietta”.
The Kola Branch van het Academy van Sciences is the grootste scientific centrum
beyond the arctische Circle.
In 1975 a museum van arctische study en exploration history attached naar de
Geographic Society in Apatity was opened. Many valuable material illustrations
of the territories history van an Oeroude time till the present dag are in this
museum. In former times uninhabited Khibiny are surrounded today in de South by
a semi-cirkel van towns en settlements like Apatity, Titan, Octobersky, Shuchiy,